Muhammad II of Khwarezm
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Muhammad II of Khwarezm is a member of the following lists: 1169 births, 1220 deaths and 1221 deaths.
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Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (????????? ???? ?Ala al-Din Mu?ammad) was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. His ancestor was a Turkic slave who eventually became a viceroy of a small province named Khwarizm. After his father died, Muhammad inherited his father's lands, and it was from there he began expanding outwards. By 1205 he had conquered all of Persia from the Seljuk Turks and in 1212 he defeated Kutluk, the Gur-Khan of the Kara Khitay (Kara-Khitan Khanate). When he had conquered all the lands from the river Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf he declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad. When the caliph an-Nasir rejected his claim, Ala ad-Din Muhammad proclaimed one of his nobles caliph and marched towards Baghdad to depose an-Nasir. However, when crossing the Zagros Mountains, the shah's army was caught in a blizzard. Thousands of warriors died and with the army decimated the generals had no choice but to return home.
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